In the 19th century, many Lusatians were proponents of the Slavic reciprocity idea. Contacts were flourishing especially with Russian Slavicists visiting Lusatian lands. Since the mid-19th century, the German press published numerous articles and remarks in which Lusatians were charged with pro-Russian political sympathies and accused of receiving money from Russia for cultural and personal purposes via secret channels. Accusations of deriving personal benefits were pointed at J. A. Smoler. In a brochure published in 1884, J. H. Imiš disputes the view, espoused by the German press and public opinion, that Lusatians are adherents of pan-Slavism who support Russian political and cultural supremacy over the entire Slavdom.